Climate Change Impacts on Iranian Ecosystems: with review on climate change study methods: climate changes natural ecosystems and urban areas

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Importance of Global Warming and its’ effects on natural resources, plants, animal and in general on human life are among subjects that received attention of scientists and politicians in recent years. United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change as a legal document has been signed in Rio and approved by governments. To control and reduced gas emission and keep them in certain level Kyoto Protocol was agreed. I.R. Iran was among those governments signed convention in Rio and ratified later. Acceptance and ratification of Kyoto Protocol by the Government of I.R. of Iran announced officially to the secretariat. Hence, from two points of view, technical and political, this issue could be considered.

Summary: ………………………………………………………………………………..  ۲

۱- Preface………………………………………………………………………………. 10

۲- Introduction ……………………………………………………………………….. 13

۳- Climate Change and Global Warming……………………………………. 16

۳-۱- UNFCCC……………………………………………………………………… 19

۳-۲- Kyoto Protocol ……………………………………………………………… 22

۳-۳- IPCC …………………………………………………………………………… 25

۴- IPCC’ Assessment Reports……………………………………………………. 30

۴-۱- First assessment report……………………………………………………. 30

۴-۲- Second assessment report……………………………………………….. 31

۴-۳- Third assessment report………………………………………………….. 33

۴-۴- Fourth assessment report…………………………………………………. 37

۴-۵- Fifth assessment report…………………………………………………… 62

۵- Climate change evaluation studies…………………………………………. 63

۵-۱- Observation and instrumental recording of climate …………….. 63

۵-۲- Providing proxy data records of climate……………………………. 64

۶- Climate change impacts on world wide and continental scales….. 87

۶-۱- Global Warming…………………………………………………………….. 87

۶-۲- Impact in Asia ………………………………………………………………. 89

۶-۳- Impacts in West and Central Asia sub-regions …………………… 96

۷- Climate change impacts in Iran…………………………………………….. 99

۷-۱- Impact in national scale………………………………………………… 104

۷-۲- Caspian forest ecosystems and climate change…………………. 109

۷-۳- Wind fluctuation………………………………………………………….. 139

۷-۲- Net Primary Production (NPP)……………………………………….. 150

۸- Case Studies………………………………………………………………………. 156

۸-۱- Astara forest ecosystem (Climate change and future projections) 156

۸-۱-۱- Global projections…………………………………………………. 162

۸-۱-۲- Down scaling in national and local levels…………………. 176

۸-۲- Tehran urban zone……………………………………………………….. 202

۹- Brief introduction to the national research project on climate change

…………………………………………………………………………………………….. ۲۲۰

۹-۱- Background………………………………………………………………… 234

۹-۲- Project Title ………………………………………………………………… 235

۹-۳- Project assumption and main questions …………………………… 235

۹-۴- Objective …………………………………………………………………… 236

۹-۵- Importance and necessity………………………………………………. 237

۹-۶- Research background in Iran, region and the world…………… 238

۹-۷- Climate change methodology on forest ecosystem studies….. 238

۱۰- Methodologies………………………………………………………………….. 240

A: Library work and statistics………………………………………………… 240

B: Laboratory works……………………………………………………………… 240

۱- Tree annual ring measurements…………………………………………… 241

۱-۱- Preparation of samples………………………………………………….. 250

۱-۲- Measurements and recording…………………………………………. 250

۱-۳- Ruler Index of skeleton plotting……………………………………… 251

۱-۴- Crossdating (Dendrochronology fundamental technique)…… 253

۲- Seed test experiment…………………………………………………………… 258

C: Field works and data collecting…………………………………………… 258

C-1: Selection of Profiles (transect), points (stations) and Trees…. 259

۱- How to select profile (transect) line?………………………………….. 259

۲- What characteristics profile (transect) line should have?……….. 259

۳- How to select points (stations) on profile (transect) line?………. 260

۴- What characteristics points (stations) should have? ……………… 260

۵- How to select trees in each points (stations)? ……………………… 260

۶- Useful tree species for investigation. …………………………………. 261

C-2: Reporting of recoded data forms……………………………………… 263

I- Research data recording Forms…………………………………………… 264

۱- Form No. 1, recording data for selection of profile (Library and field) 264

۲- Form No. 2, recording report of points and vegetation cover (Library and
field)………………………………………………………………………………… 265

۳- Form No. 3, recording data (Location) of trees for getting samples (field)

…. ………………………………………………………………………………………… ۲۶۶

۴- Form No. 4, recording data (tree) of trees for getting samples (field) 267

۵- Form No. 5, recording data of annual ring measurements (laboratory) 268

۶- Form No. 6, recording data for temperature (Library and field) …. 269

۷- Form No. 7, recording data for humidity (Library and field)……… 270

۸- Form No. 8, recording of tree growth (Library and field)…………… 271

II- How to complete Research data recording Forms………………… 272

۱۱- Important points for attention…………………………………………… 273

۱۲- Project management table…………………………………………………. 274

۱۳- Abbreviations………………………………………………………………….. 275

۱۴- Appendices………………………………………………………………………. 276

A- List of Figures…………………………………………………………………… 276

B- List of Photos……………………………………………………………………. 276

C- List of Tables……………………………………………………………………. 282

۱۵- References………………………………………………………………………. 286

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Climate Change Impacts on Iranian Ecosystems: with review on climate change study methods: climate changes natural ecosystems and urban areas

52,000 تومان

33 عدد در انبار