Iran covers an area of about 1,648,OOOkm2 Altitudinally, it ranges from 28m below sea-level on the shores of the Caspian Sea to the 5770m of Mt. Damavand. Climatically, there is the contrast between the humid, almost jungle-like forests of the south Caspian and the arid, in places lifeless, deserts of the Dasht-e Lut; a temperature range from a winter low of -35°c in the north-west to a summer high of 50°c on the Persian Gulf. As a result of these major topographical, geological and climatic variation, Iran is rich in plant diversity. The country supports a total of around 8000 plant species, and is one of the major centres of endemism in this part of the world.
There has been a long history of low-intensity, traditional land management including grazing in Iran, which for the most part has not conflicted with, and indeed in many areas as positively contributed to, the maintenance of viable populations of the species. However, increasing anthropogenic pressures, including deforestation, re-forestation, intensification of agriculture, drainage of wetlands and industrial development, have already had a great impact on the growth, survival and distribution of native species, in Iran, especially the rare and endemic species.
Red Data Books contain information on threatened species of an area. In 1994 the IUCN species survival commission prepared standardised red list categories, to provide an easily understood method for highlighting the threatened species.
In order to list Iran’s threatened phanerogams, the IUeN ۱۹۹۴ Red List categories were applied.The preparation of Red Data Book of Iran has been carried out in the Research Institute of Forests and Rangelands (RIFR).